Some Useful Substitutions for Emergencies

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SUBSTITUTE

1 cup /7.6 ounces/217 grams light brown sugar 1 cup /7 ounces/200 grams granulated sugar plus 1 tablespoon/15 ml/0.7 ounce/20 grams light molasses
1 cup /8.4 ounces/239 grams dark brown sugar 1 cup /7 ounces/200 grams granulated sugar plus 2 tablespoons/30 ml/1.4 ounces/40 grams light molasses
1 pound unsalted butter 1 pound lightly salted butter. Remove 1 teaspoon/6 grams salt from the recipe.
1 cup/237 ml whole milk 1 cup minus 1 tablespoon/222 ml half and half. Remove 1 tablespoon/0.5 ounce/14 grams of butter from the recipe and add 2 tablespoons/30 ml of water.
1 cup/237 ml half and half ¾ cup/177 ml whole milk plus ¼ cup/59 ml heavy cream or ½ cup/118 ml whole milk plus ½ cup/118 ml light cream
1 cup/3.5 ounces/100 grams sifted bleached cake flour ¾ cup/3 ounces/85 grams sifted bleached all-purpose flour plus 2 tablespoons/0.7 ounce/20 grams potato starch or cornstarch
1 cup/4 ounces/114 grams sifted bleached all-purpose flour 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons/4 ounces/114 grams sifted bleached cake flour or ¾ cup plus 1½ tablespoons/4 ounces/114 grams Wondra flour (see note)
2 cups/8 ounces/228 grams sifted pastry flour 1⅓ cups/5.4 ounces/152 grams sifted bleached all-purpose flour plus ¾ cup/2.7 ounces/76 grams sifted bleached cake flour
1 teaspoon instant active dry yeast 1¼ teaspoons active dry yeast or 1½ teaspoons packed fresh yeast
1 packed tablespoon/0.75 ounce cake yeast 2 teaspoons/6.4 grams instant active dry yeast or 2½ teaspoons/8 grams active dry yeast
1 teaspoon/5 ml citrus oil ⅓ cup/1.1 ounces/32 grams zest, loosely packed
1 teaspoon/2 grams zest, loosely packed 1/16 teaspoon citrus oil

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