Issues of Translation

In transliterating from the Russian, I followed the Library of Congress system, except I have used a “j” to indicate soft vowels. I used standard English spelling for familiar Russian proper names (Tolstoy instead of Tolstoj), but I transliterated unfamiliar proper names. For older materials, I have quoted Russian and English titles, names, and text exactly as they appeared on the printed page without modernizing the orthography. Some of these forms may look odd to the modern reader—especially since Molokhovets’ spelling was somewhat inconsistent—but they are not modern typographical errors.

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