Take one or twofowls, old or young. Let them lie half an hour in cold water to cleanse from the blood, then drain and put them in a pot; fill it with water, let it boil, then skim it. Add one large carrot, or two small ones, twoturnips, oneonion, onehead of celery, twocloves, apiece of mace, alittlesalt. Let it boil gently for two hours if the chickens are young; if old, three hours. When they are tender, skim off the fat, and pass the consomme through a sieve. This consomme may be considered a basis for all white soups, as well as white sauces, and should be used instead of water for filling them up.