borers, usually beetles or their larvae, which bore into the woody parts of plants, sometimes killing them. The branch and twig borer, Melalqus confertus, occurs throughout California and parts of Oregon and damages grape canes. Control is usually by cultural methods, by keeping vines healthy, pruning off all dying and dead parts and infested wood in winter. Beetle larvae causing problems to vineyards can be quite regionally specific. The fig longicorn (Dihammus vastator) beetle larvae causes vine damage only in the Hunter Valley region of Australia, for example.