cane, the stem of a mature grapevine shoot after the bark becomes woody (lignified) and tan-coloured at veraison and starts its overwintering form (see cane ripening and cambium). After leaves have fallen, the canes of a vine display the total vegetative growth it made during the previous season (called the ‘brush’ in the US). The number of canes and their weight and average size are important guides to decisions about balanced pruning and canopy management tactics. The canes are cut at winter pruning to reduce the number of buds and to select their position. The cutting may be to spurs or canes.