cordon de Royat, an old form of cordon training used in France for wine grapes since the end of the 19th century (see illustration below). The system was proposed by Lefebvre, director of the French agricultural school of Royat. The classic form is a unilateral cordon on a short trunk (about 30 to 50 cm (12–20 in)), the term unilateral meaning that the cordon is trained only to one side of the trunk. The cordon extends mostly from one vine to another. The vines are normally spur pruned to two-bud spurs. The number of spurs is limited for each variety under appellation laws: in Burgundy, for example, to four spurs each for Pinot Noir and Chardonnay vines, and to eight for Gamay.