eutypa dieback, one of the fungal diseases included in the trunk disease complex which, by rotting the wood, can be very destructive and cause whole vineyards to be replanted. Sometimes it is known as dying arm, and is called eutypiose, in France. Distribution is worldwide, over a wide range of climates, but with the highest incidence in regions with more than 300 mm rainfall a year. Today it is the most common trunk disease in South Australia, where it was first discovered in 1957, south-west France, and in the North Coast and Sacramento regions of California. Studies conducted in the late 1990s estimated the loss of net income caused by eutypa dieback to grape-growers in California at $260 million a year and at $20 million a year in Australia for Shiraz alone.