grasshoppers, insects of the families Acrididae and Tettigoniidae which can feed on the vine. Reductions in vineyard leaf area impair grape ripening, with potentially severe effects on wine quality. In California, for example, the devastating grasshopper (Melanoplus devastator Scudder) is particularly harmful to vineyards, causing damage by defoliation, usually in mid to late summer. In eastern Australia, the Australian plague locust (Chortoicetes terminifera) can be a major pest. Dense swarms can build up in pasture areas, and descend very quickly on vineyard areas, especially when pastures dry out. Control where necessary is usually by insecticides.