International Grape Genome Program (IGGP), a framework for multinational collaborative grapevine research, with an emphasis on grapevine genomics. This project fosters efforts to characterize grape genes responsible for resistance to pests and diseases, vine growth, and fruit quality. These efforts result in the identification of genetic markers capable of expediting and optimizing classical vine breeding. They also lead to the identification of grape genes that could be used to genetically modify and improve grapevines while having limited impact on variety integrity, a process known as cisgenics. See genetic modification and pierce’s disease.