joint venture, common phenomenon in the late 20th century whereby two enterprises with very different strengths combine to produce a wine or wines. The modern prototype was that announced in 1979 between Baron Philippe de rothschild of Bordeaux and Robert mondavi of California to produce Opus One, the luxuriously priced Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon, combining Mondavi’s knowledge of and holdings in the Napa Valley with the prestige and winemaking expertise associated with Baron Philippe’s first growth Pauillac Ch mouton-rothschild. Most joint ventures are designed to justify a premium over the other wines made in situ by virtue of a much-heralded connection with a glamorous outsider. Both Mondavi and the Mouton team embarked on subsequent joint ventures but they have been joined by dozens of other companies attracted by the global nature of today’s wine business (see globalization). Joint ventures are particularly well suited to new wine regions such as those in china and india, for example, where the winemaking expertise of an established wine producer blends well with an enterprise which can offer local knowledge and contacts.