Kazakhstan, independent central Asian, former Soviet republic. Rich in natural resources and enjoying a certain prosperity, Kazakhstan is the largest land-locked country in the world, south of Russia and bordering China. It has an extreme continental climate, with summer temperatures exceeding 30 °C/86 °F, and winter temperatures averaging –20 °C/ –4 °F. Its capital is Astana in the north. Less than 4% of Kazakhstan offers favourable soil and climatic conditions for commercial grape culture. According to oiv estimates, total vineyard area was 13,000 ha/32,100 acres producing 189,000 hl/5 million gal of wine in 2011.