snails, vine pests of which at least two types can be of economic significance to wine production: the white Italian snail, Theba pisana, and the brown or English snail, Helix aspersa. They are mainly a problem in early spring, and can strip vines of young foliage if they are in large numbers, which happens particularly in wet conditions. They will contaminate fruit and wine if they are present at harvest time. Clean cultivation is an important preventive measure, and sprays or baits used early can also control snails. Copper-based fungicides used on vines also affect snails by repelling and killing them. Ducks and geese feed on snails, and their presence in vineyards will keep numbers down.