vertical trellis, a vine-training system widely used throughout the world, in which the shoots are trained vertically upwards in summer. The system is commonly called vertical shoot positioning, or VSP, in the New World. The shoots are held in place by foliage wires which, in turn, are attached to vineyard posts. In many vineyards there are two pairs of foliage wires, and commonly the vines are subjected to trimming at the top and sides to maintain a neat, hedge-like appearance. Both spur pruning and cane pruning are possible. This trellis system is widely used in Alsace, Germany, eastern Europe, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand, with high vines (trunks of about 1 m/3 ft) and relatively low-density plantings. The vineyards of Bordeaux, Burgundy, and Champagne are also vertically shoot positioned, although the vines are planted closer together and the trunks are much shorter.