The Whole-Wheat Flour, along with the soaked rye chops, contributes to the depth of flavor of this bread. Chops, as the name suggests, are milled by chopping rather than grinding the grain; both rye and wheat chops are available, and both add a great deal of texture to breads. If the rye chops called for in the formula are unavailable, cracked rye is a suitable substitute. It does not absorb water as readily as the chops, however, and if using them, first boil the water. The method described calls for dough pieces of 4.5 pounds that are baked in uncovered pullman pans (this weight fits a pullman pan with the dimensions 13 by 3¾ by 3¾ inches); in Germany these loaves are also shaped into large rounds weighing as much as 11 pounds. Prepare the pullman pans by lightly oiling them and then coating them with pumpernickel rye meal or whole-rye flour. This method of preparing the pans is typical for long-baking, high-rye-flour breads, and helps prevent the dough from sticking to the pan. For other types of pan loaves, just oiling the pan is sufficient.