*Pretsls are a very old form of baked goods and were referred to in Jewish sources as early as the first half of the thirteenth century. (A bagel is simply a type of pretzel.) Bagels, with many local variations, were known throughout the historic territory of the Ashkenazi Jews. Although Jews had no monopoly on bagels, they seem to have been closely associated with them, baking them almost every day and distributing them to friends and relatives on special occasions such as a circumcision. (For more information on pretzels and bagels in Jewish sources see
**Also known as fennel flower, nutmeg flower, nigella, or Roman coriander, black cumin seeds are native to Syria, were very popular with the Romans, and are still used for flavoring sweet breads and pastries in Cyprus, Lebanon, and Armenia. In India they are used for curries and, according to Mrs.
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