Endives are often parboiled, left to cool a bit, squeezed out, and sautéed in butter until lightly browned. Sometimes they are put to cook, raw, with a chunk of butter, seasoning, a bit of lemon juice, and a couple of tablespoons of water, barely simmered in a tightly covered vessel until tenderly done—45 minutes to 1 hour—and served as such, or they may be moistened with cream just before serving. Gratins are common, and the simplest consist of squeezing out parboiled endives, sprinkling with cheese, spreading butter shavings over the surface, and baking in a hot oven until a golden surface is formed; cream or a light béchamel may be poured over before sprinkling with cheese. They may be first parboiled, squeezed, then cooked gently until meltingly tender in a rich stock or reduced bouillon, arranged on a bed of mixed mushroom purée and fairly thick mornay, their cooking liquid reduced to a light syrup and poured over, Parmesan sprinkled over the surface, and gratinéed . . .