Some of the professional cookbook writers found jobs with large corporations, which were busy pitching the idea that becoming a virtuous, efficient, and loving wife and mother was impossible without newfangled devices such as hand-cranked ice cream makers and rotary beaters, or modern innovations such as Royal Baking Powder, Crisco, Jell-O, and, eventually, Duncan Hines. See cake mix; gelatin desserts; hines, duncan; ice cream makers; and shortening. American corporations used premium cookbooks, packaging, advertising, and product placement to distribute and popularize recipes such as chocolate chip cookies, Rice Krispies treats, and Jell-O salads. By the mid-twentieth century, the recipes published in magazines such as Family Circle—with a circulation of 4 million—often involved little more than assembling mass-produced convenience foods. A typical 1955 recipe for Marshmallow Brownie Pudding is “home-made” from canned chocolate-flavor syrup, marshmallows, and devil’s food cake mix.