Appears in
The Fundamental Techniques of Classic Bread Baking

By French Culinary Institute

Published 2021

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The method by which all yeast-based doughs are mixed, either by hand or machine, to turn a basic mix into a soft, pliable mass of dough. For the most part, all kneading done in commercial bakeries is done by machine and, at home, the process can be replicated to a degree using a heavy-duty electric stand mixer fitted with the dough hook. Commercial mixers designed especially for bread making knead dough in a way that mimics hand-kneading and, as such, do not overheat or overwork the dough or significantly tear the gluten. To test for proper gluten development in a dough, perform a windowpane test.