Botryosphaeria dieback, fungal disease affecting the trunk and arms of the vine caused by at least 22 species in the family Botryosphaeriaceae that occurs wherever grapes are grown, causing loss of production in both newly planted and mature vineyards. Botryosphaeriaceae fungi primarily infect vines through pruning wounds and although species differ in their impact on the vines, the most characteristic symptoms of the disease are perennial cankers in the wood (typically wedge-shaped) and lack of spring growth. Other symptoms include black or light-brown streaking of the xylem vessels, graft failure, cane bleaching, cane dieback, shoot necrosis, bud necrosis, and mortality. In some grape-growing regions, several Botryosphaeriaceae species are also thought to be involved in causing bunch rots. See also trunk diseases.