latitude, angular distance north or south of the equator, measured in degrees and minutes. The main northern hemisphere viticultural regions extend between 32 and 51 degrees north, and most of those in the southern hemisphere between 28 and 42 degrees south. Viticulture is spreading polewards and is likely to continue to do so due to climate change. Whereas ten years ago 52 degrees north in england (and Ireland) was around the northern limit, vines are now planted in norway and sweden, up to 59 degrees north. The southern extension is just over 46 degrees south in Central Otago, new zealand and it seems highly unlikely that the vine could thrive further south than this in South America. Some vines are also cultivated for wine production in tropical highlands or irrigated desert conditions as close to the equator as eight or nine degrees. See tropical viticulture.