pruners, devices used for winter pruning of grapevines. From ancient times until the 19th century, a pruning hook or knife was used. In modern times, pruning is normally carried out using hand-held secateurs. These were developed in the mid 19th century, and came into widespread use in the latter half of the century. Secateurs cut with a scissor action, and there are various forms available (including power-assisted versions). Sometimes pruning saws may be needed to remove old cordons or arms. Vineyard winter pruning is now being mechanized with tractor-mounted machines doing most of the cutting, as described in mechanical pruning.