The three most resistant american vine species are V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. berlandieri, and the most susceptible species is the European vinifera (see vitis). Interspecific hybrids containing genes from any of the first three species will therefore have satisfactory resistance, and those hybrids including V. vinifera will have suspect resistance. Rootstocks of V. vinifera × V. rupestris (including AXR1, and Couderc rootstocks 1202 and 93–5) and V. vinifera × V. riparia parentage should be avoided as possessing insufficient phylloxera tolerance. Interestingly, V. vinifera × V. berlandieri rootstocks such as 41 B and 333 EM generally have sufficient resistance. A few examples of rootstocks with high phylloxera resistance are Riparia Gloire, 101–14 Mgt, SO 4, and 5 BB.