second crop is one that may form after the main one on secondary lateral shoots. The amount of lateral shoot growth is correlated with that of the whole shoot; on weak shoots, laterals can barely be seen, while on long, strong shoots and at nodes near the cut ends of trimmed shoots, laterals can grow so strongly as to resemble primary shoots. Second crop bunches are most abundant on strong laterals. In some varieties, a second crop is rare, but on others, such as pinot noir and many muscat varieties, this crop can be large. Usually the existence of a second crop is a negative factor for wine quality since its development runs six to eight weeks behind the main crop and it competes for nutrients, as well as complicating the development and control of vine pests and vine diseases. Worse, it adds a proportion of immature fruit to the harvest (especially where mechanical harvesters are used), which usually adversely affects the quality of the resulting wine.