shoot tip, the 1 cm/0.4 in of shoot furthest from the vine’s original bud, also known as the shoot apex. This small piece of tissue competes very effectively with the grapes for food produced by the mature leaves, and so a vigorously growing vine may slow fruit ripening. These nutrients may be diverted to the grapes by tipping the shoots. The balance between shoot growth and fruit growth has important effects on grape ripening and wine quality (see balance, leaf to fruit ratio, and vine physiology). Shoot tip growth is being increasingly used to monitor vine growth as a guide to vine management. For example, irrigation should be regulated so that shoot growth stops by the time of veraison, and Californian, Australian, and French studies have related shoot tip appearance to measurements of vine water stress. Also, a vine which is in balance and has been pruned appropriately will not have excessive numbers of shoot tips from the main and lateral shoots.