spur pruning, a form of winter vine pruning whereby the canes are cut back to two-bud spurs (see diagram). Normally the spurs are spaced along a cordon top and point upwards (although see smart–dyson). There are several advantages to spur pruning, in that it takes less time to prune by hand and the operation can also be mechanized easily (see mechanical pruning). Also, setting the spur spacing results in the correct shoot spacing in the canopy, which in turn leads to well-exposed leaves and fruit (see canopy microclimate). Spur pruning is not particularly well suited to very vigorous vineyards, however, as excessive shade can lead to the loss of both yield (due to low bud fruitfulness) and quality. The other main form of vine pruning is cane pruning. See also cordon training.