vine density is a measure of how closely spaced vines are in the vineyard, both within the row and between rows. The choice of vine spacing is one of the most fundamental decisions in planting a vineyard, and between, even within, the world’s wine regions there is enormous variation in spacing. The traditional vineyards of France’s Bordeaux, Burgundy, and Champagne regions have about 10,000 plants per ha (4,050 per acre) (and sometimes more), with vines spaced typically 1 m apart both within and between the rows. In many new world vineyards, on the other hand, a spacing of 2.5 m/8 ft between vines along the row and 3.7 m/12 ft between rows, or 1,080 vines per ha, is quite common. Probably the most widely spaced vineyards of the world are those of the Vinho Verde region in Portugal, La Mancha in Spain, and some parts of Chile, Japan, and Italy (see tendone), with spacings as wide as 4 m by 4 m, or just 625 vines per ha.