vine training, the process of establishing a vine framework in the required shape. It may begin in summer by tying down and trimming growing shoots, followed by suitable winter pruning. Normally vines are trained to a supporting structure which may be as simple as a stake in the ground, or may be a more complex trellis system made from wire and wood, metal, or concrete posts. Training is normally complete within the first two or three years of a vine’s life and is well established before grape production begins. It will, however, take longer where vines are planted at wide distances apart and with complex trellis systems such as the tendone. Training normally consists of forming the trunk, the cordons or head, and any arms required.