winery, modern, essentially new world term for the premises on which wine is made; its first recorded use was in the United States in 1882. It may mean either the entire enterprise, or it may mean specifically the building or buildings used for winemaking. The nearest French equivalent is cave (but see also chai and cuve). winery design is a specialist art most dramatically practised in rioja and northern california, where, neatly, the fashion is for caves: winemaking facilities burrowed into hillsides, the cost of maintaining suitable temperatures and humidity in such subterranean tunnels being minimal. However, there are spectacular examples all over the wine world today, with increasing emphasis on sustainability.