Bread Making

Fermented bread is made by mixing to a dough, flour, with a definite quantity of water, milk, or water and milk, salt, and a ferment. Sugar is usually added to hasten fermentation. Dough is then kneaded that the ingredients may be thoroughly incorporated, covered, and allowed to rise in a temperature of 68° F., until dough has doubled its bulk. This change has been caused by action of the ferment, which attacks some of the starch in flour, and changes it to sugar, and sugar in turn to alcohol and carbon dioxide, thus lightening the whole mass. Dough is then kneaded a second time to break bubbles and distribute evenly the carbon dioxide. It is shaped in loaves, put in greased bread pans (they being half filled), covered, allowed to rise in temperature same as for first rising, to double its bulk. If risen too long, it will be full of large holes; if not risen long enough, it will be heavy and soggy. If pans containing loaves are put in too hot a place while rising, a heavy streak will be found near bottom of loaf.

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