Appears in
The Fundamental Techniques of Classic Bread Baking

By French Culinary Institute

Published 2021

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Although there are many different types of animal milk available, cow’s milk is, by far, the most popular and readily available. Goat and sheep milk are sometimes available in specialty and health food stores; they are rarely seen in supermarkets. The milk of llamas, reindeer, camels, and water buffalo is widely used in other parts of the world for both drinking and cheese making. No matter which animal it comes from, milk is high in nutrients and contains protein, calcium, phosphorus, vitamins A and D, lactose (milk sugar), and riboflavin. It is also high in sodium. Unless purchased directly from a farm, almost all milk sold commercially has been pasteurized to destroy the microorganisms that can cause disease and speed spoilage. To ensure a uniform liquidity, most commercial milk products have also been homogenized, or emulsified, to prevent the fats from separating from the liquid.