To make the sauce Espagnole, you must first make a stock. Melt 1 tablespoon of the butter in a saucepan over low heat and cook the shallot, stirring occasionally, until it starts to turn translucent. Add the turnip, carrot, veal, and ham, raise the heat a little, and cook, stirring often, until everything just starts to brown, about 10 minutes. Add the stock, tomatoes, claret, sherry, mushroom ketchup, bouquet garni, peppercorns, and cloves and stir well. Raise the heat to high and bring to a boil, then reduce the heat to medium and simmer for 1 hour. Strain the stock through a finemesh sieve into a pitcher, pushing against the solids with the back of a spoon to extract the maximum amount of flavor and texture.
Melt the remaining 3 tablespoons butter in a saucepan over medium heat, then whisk in the flour until a smooth, thick roux forms. Reduce the heat to low and continue to stir until the roux is a very light brown, about 5 minutes. Now add the hot stock, a spoonful at a time, to the roux, whisking vigorously after each addition so no lumps develop. When all the stock has been added, continue to cook over low heat, stirring steadily, until you have a creamy, very smooth sauce, about 2 minutes. Remove from the heat. You should have about 2 cups (480 ml). Set aside 1 cup (240 ml) for the sauce Robert and refrigerate or freeze the remainder for another use.
To make the sauce Robert, melt the butter in a saucepan over medium heat and cook the shallot, stirring occasionally. When it starts to brown, after 3–4 minutes, turn down the heat and add the sauce Espagnole, white wine, the mustard to taste, and the sugar and mix well. Bring to a gentle simmer, then keep warm while you cook the chops.
Season the pork chops on both sides with salt. Heat about 2 tablespoons of oil in a large frying pan over medium-high heat. When the oil is hot, add the chops and cook, turning once, until just cooked through, 2–4 minutes on each side, depending on their thickness. Transfer to a warmed plate, season with pepper, and let rest for 5 minutes before serving. Meanwhile, fry the parsley in the same pan over medium-high heat until crisp, about 30 seconds, adding more oil as needed.
Arrange the chops, edges overlapping, in a line on a warmed platter and sprinkle them with the parsley. Serve the sauce in a sauceboat alongside.