With the widely available Fresno chiles, this makes a slightly hot but not blistering sauce. If you want more heat, replace some or all of the sweet bell pepper with an equal weight of hot peppers, replace the Fresno chiles with red jalapeño or serrano chiles, if you have them, or just stir in a little ground cayenne.
Stem and seed the chiles and pepper, and coarsely chop them and the garlic. Put the chiles, pepper, and garlic in a food processor and pulse until finely minced. Transfer to a saucepan and add the vinegar, sugar, and salt. Bring to a boil (watching the pan to make sure it doesn’t boil over), then lower the heat and simmer briskly, stirring occasionally, until much of the liquid has reduced, about 10 minutes. If you’d like, use an immersion blender to puree the sauce—tilt the pan so you can submerge the blender head. Transfer to a clean heatproof, nonreactive container (such as a canning jar), let cool for a few minutes, then cover and refrigerate for up to several weeks.
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