Marinate the beef
In a large resealable plastic bag, combine the beef, 1 tablespoon of the oil, 1½ teaspoons of the fish sauce, and ¼ teaspoon salt. Seal the bag and turn to distribute the marinade. Set aside at room temperature for 15 minutes or in the refrigerator for up to overnight.
Cook the broth and noodles
In a large saucepan over medium-high heat, combine the broth, ginger, coriander seeds, cinnamon stick, and remaining 2 teaspoons fish sauce. Bring to a boil. Reduce the heat to low, cover, and simmer for 30 minutes. Bring a large pot of water to a boil, add the vermicelli, and cook until tender, according to the package directions. Drain, rinse under cold water, and divide evenly among bowls.
Finish the soup
In a frying pan over high heat, warm the remaining 1 tablespoon oil. Add the beef and its marinade and cook, stirring, until the beef is seared on both sides, about 4 minutes total. Remove from the pan and set aside. Strain the broth, return to the saucepan, and bring to a boil over medium-high heat. Add the bean sprouts, basil, and beef and cook for about 3 minutes. Ladle over the vermicelli and serve. Pass the lime quarters at the table.