beetles, insects of the Coleoptera order, several of which attack grapevines as well as other horticultural crops and pastures. While particular species of beetles are often specific to a country or even region, beetles are a pest to grapevines worldwide. Black beetles (Heteronychus arator) attack young vines in spring, and can cause ring barking. They are native to South Africa, and are also known as African black beetles, but cause damage in other countries such as Australia. Apple curculio beetle (Otiorhyncus cribricollis), thought to be a native of Europe, and vegetable weevil (Listorderes costirostris) also attack young vines in late spring and early summer, causing damage by eating vine leaves and/or young shoots. Beetles of importance in France are Altica ampelophaga and Adoxus vitis, which eat leaves, and Otiorhyncus sulcatus, which eats young shoots and buds. Rhynchites betuleti is called cigarier in French because it damages petioles so the leaves roll up like cigars. Control of beetles, if necessary, is by application of the appropriate insecticide or an organic alternative. See also borers.