Vines are grafted or budded to take advantage of the desirable properties of the rootstock variety. Foremost is resistance or tolerance to soil-borne pests and diseases, especially phylloxera and nematodes. Other properties are tolerance to soil salinity, to high lime levels, to soil water-logging or drought, and an ability to modify vigour or to hasten or delay ripening. If conducted in the vineyard, as field budding and grafting, the practice offers a method of changing a vine variety. If conducted indoors, before planting, it is called bench grafting, which may in warm climates be complemented by nursery grafting.