nursery in viticultural terms is either a place set aside for nurturing young vines, or a name for a propagation and/or a grafting establishment. Open-ground vine nurseries are where cuttings are planted to develop roots and become rootlings. Cuttings are taken in winter, stored in a cold room, then callused by burying them in moist sand, often on heated beds, until young roots form at the base (after six to eight weeks). In spring they are planted in rows in the nursery, where the first-year shoots develop. Nursery soils need to be deep, friable, and well drained, free of pathogens and with a good water supply. In the following winter or spring, they are lifted, shoots and roots are trimmed, and the vines planted out in the vineyard. For grafted vines, the products of bench grafting are callused in a humid room before planting in a nursery.