Lenz Moser, a training system developed in Austria in the 1920s by Dr Lenz Moser III. It employs wider rows (about 3.5 m/11.5 ft) and higher trunks (1.3 m) than had previously been the norm, thereby reducing vine density. Lenz Moser’s ideas influenced Professor Nelson shaulis, who developed the geneva double curtain.
The Lenz Moser system found favour in parts of Europe in the mid 20th century because it decreases labour and therefore production costs, without any need for special machinery. French and German studies found reductions in fruit quality, however, probably because of shade in the fruit zone and it is now much less common even in Austria. It is also known as high culture, or Hochkultur in German. The name is probably more familiar as the biggest wine producer in Austria, with operations as far afield as China.