Luxembourg or Luxemburg, was for long the eu’s smallest and coolest wine producer before being rivalled in both respects by england, belgium, the netherlands, and denmark. The rarely exported wines produced are relatively dry and, depending on grape variety, reminiscent of those of Alsace or England in style. With the exception of an increasing number of light reds and rosés made from Pinot Noir and st laurent vines, the wines made on the western, Luxembourg bank of the river moselle are white. In 2014, there were 1,295 ha/3,213 acres of exceptionally productive vineyard. Average yields have been decreasing but the official limits in 2014 were still as high as 115 hl/ha for Elbling and Rivaner and 100 hl/ha for other vine varieties. Except in very ripe years such as 2003, 2005, 2009, 2010, and 2011, chaptalization is a necessity here and the wines can be marked by relatively high acidity (although deacidification may be practised by some producers). A national law passed in 1996 was designed to encourage higher-alcohol wines, a tendency encouraged by global warming (see climate change).