Wine has been made along the Hudson River continuously for the past 300 years, and it contains the oldest winery in the United States still in operation: Brotherhood Winery, established in 1839. Hudson River Region became an AVA in 1982. There are wineries on both sides of the Hudson River, but the moderating effects of the river on the local climate are seen as less important than the steep palisaded valley which acts as a conduit for maritime air and weather generated by the Atlantic ocean. Glaciers have deposited shale, slate, schist, and limestone throughout the region. Among the region’s producers is Royal Kedem Winery/Royal Wine Corporation, one of the world’s largest kosher wineries. seyval blanc is widely planted and some vinifera varieties, including Chardonnay, also do well. Just 235 acres/95 ha are planted in the AVA, yet there are a disproportionate number of wineries, 49, many of which buy in grapes from other regions.