plastic sheeting, can be used in the vineyard to modify the climate. Studies in Canada and the UK have shown that transparent sheets suspended either side of the fruit zone will raise temperatures and protect the vine from wind, advancing vine development, which is helpful in cool climates. It has also been used experimentally on the ground in some vineyards to protect the vines from rain towards the end of the ripening period, thus allowing grapes to ripen fully but keeping vegetative growth to a minimum. However, when Michel rolland first trialled this method in 1999 in Fronsac, the French regulatory body inao judged it to be a modification of the soil and the wine had to be sold as a vin de table. Plastic sheeting or patches can be used to keep weeds down and retain soil moisture around young plants (see mulch). It can also be used on vines to protect grapes destined for eiswein from birds and rain.