Table Showing Composition

Proteid. Fat. Starch. Mineral matter. Water.
Oatmeal 15.6 7.3 68.0 1.9 7.2
Corn meal 8.9 2.2 75.1 0.9 12.9
Wheat flour (spring) 11.8 1.1 75.0 0.5 11.6
Wheat flour (winter) 10.4 1.0 75.6 0.5 12.5
Entire wheat flour 14.2 1.9 70.6 1.2 12.1
Graham flour 13.7 2.2 70.3 2.0 11.8
Pearl barley 9.3 1.0 77.6 1.3 10.8
Rye meal 7.1 0.9 78.5 0.8 12.7
Rice 7.8 0.4 79.4 0.4 12.4
Buckwheat flour 6.1 1.0 77.2 1.4 14.3
Macaroni 11.7 1.6 72.9 3.0 10.8
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

Macaroni, spaghetti, and vermicelli are made from wheaten flour, rich in gluten, moistened to a stiff dough with water, and forced through small apertures in an iron plate by means of a screw press. Various Italian pastes are made from the same mixture. Macaroni is manufactured to some extent in this country, but the best comes from Italy, Lagana and Pejero, being the favorite brand. When macaroni is colored, it is done by the use of saffron, not by eggs, as is generally supposed. The only egg macaroni is manufactured in strips, and comes from Minneapolis.

Macaroni is valuable food, as it is very cheap and nutritious; but being deficient in fat, it should be combined with cream, butter, or cheese, to make a perfect food.
From cereals many preparations are made, used alone, or in combination with other food products. From rice is made rice flour; from oats, oatmeal, and oats steam-cooked and rolled, — as Rolled Avena, Quaker Rolled Oats, H—O, etc. There are many species of corn, the principal varieties being white, yellow, and red. From corn is made corn meal, — both white and yellow, — corn-starch, hominy, maizena, cerealine, samp, and hulled corn; from wheat, wheaten or white flour, Wheatena, Wheatlet, Wheat Grits, Pettijohns, etc. Rye is principally used for meal and flour; barley, for flour and pearl barley. Buckwheat, throughout the United States, is used only when made into flour for buckwheat cakes.
For family use, cereals should be bought in small quantities, and kept in glass jars, tightly covered. Many cereal preparations are on the market for making breakfast mushes, put up in one and two pound packages, with directions for cooking. In nearly all cases, time allowed for cooking is not sufficient, unless dish containing cereal is brought in direct contact with fire, which is not the best way. Mushes should be cooked over hot water after the first five minutes; if a double boiler is not procurable, improvise one. Boiling water and salt should always be added to cereals, allowing one teaspoon salt to each cup of cereal, — boiled to soften cellulose and swell starch grains, salted to give flavor. Indian meal and finely ground preparations should be mixed with cold water before adding boiling water, to prevent lumping.

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