If the turkey is frozen, it must be defrosted before cooking. Look at the chart that follows, which lists the time it takes to ·defrost a turkey. The time needed for defrosting can range from 4 hours to as long as 4 days.
The turkey is roasted in an open pan. It is covered before and during roasting with cheesecloth dipped in shortening.
If a pan gravy is desired, it should be made from turkey broth. The broth is generally made from giblets. Thus, it is wise to make the broth while the turkey is roasting (see for directions).