Mixing Styles at a Glance

Appears in
The Fundamental Techniques of Classic Bread Baking

By French Culinary Institute

Published 2021

  • About
Style Technique Dough Product
Short (also known as traditional)

Little gluten development

Sometimes done on first speed only

Very little oxidation

Often used in conjunction with a series of folds

Wet dough (averages 74 percent hydration or greater)

Long bulk fermentation times (little yeast)

Creamy crumb color

Open cell structure

Less volume

Excellent flavor

Ciabatta, miche, rustic baguettes


Full gluten development

A lot of oxidation

Stiff dough (averages 62 percent hydration or less)

“No-time” dough or short bulk fermentation time (a lot of yeast)

White crumb color

Tight, fine crumb structure

Greater volume

Poor flavor

White pan loaves, bagels, pretzels, commercial breads


Moderate gluten development

Minimum oxidation

Typically used in conjunction with one fold

Often includes autolyse

Medium-hydration dough (65 to 72 percent hydration)

Medium bulk fermentation time (typically 1½ to 2 hours)

Creamy crumb color

Open cell structure

Good volume

Good flavor

Baguettes, levain breads