Cortinarius (Sericeocybe) raphanoides (Pers.) Fr. syn. C. betuletorum M.M. Moser (illustrated 50% life size) Cap 3–6cm across, conico-convex then bell-shaped or expanded and broadly umbonate; umber to grey-brown with an olivaceous tinge. Stem 40–80×8–12mm, base often swollen, up to 20mm wide; pale buff, with remnants of the pallid to olive-brown veil below; becoming hollow. Flesh light brownish; taste and smell sometimes slightly radishy. Gills adnate to free; pale ochre at first, later rust. Spores 7–7.5×5.5–6¼. Spore print rust. Habitat in deciduous woods, usually with birch; late summer to early autumn. Occasional. Suspect avoid. Note Professor M.M. Moser told me that he considered C. betuletorum to be only a synonym for C. raphanoides.