Canada, a prime beneficiary of climate change, has a thriving wine industry concentrated in four provinces, ontario, british columbia, and to a lesser extent quebec and nova scotia, on vineyards that totalled 12,000 ha/30,000 acres in 2011 according to the oiv. Given the exigencies of the Canadian climate, grapes are invariably grown near large bodies of water that moderate the effects of Canada’s severe winters and decrease the risk of damaging winter freeze and spring frosts (see lake effect). Until the late 1970s, the majority of Canadian vines were the winter-hardy North American labrusca varieties such as concord and Niagara. Next to follow were early-ripening, winter-resistant french hybrids such as vidal blanc, seyval blanc, baco noir, and maréchal foch, often called simply Foch in Canada. Since the late 1980s, however, growers have put greater emphasis on vinifera vine varieties, whose wines enjoy increasing success both at home and abroad.