Elderflowers have been made into teas or tisanes in Europe and by N. American Indians, largely for medicinal use and especially as an antidote against colds. The flowers are also used to flavour cooked fruit and jam, which is achieved by stirring the panful with a spray of flowers until the flavour is judged strong enough. They provide, in a more substantial role, the basis of elderflower fritters, sometimes claimed to be an invention of N. American Indians but having a lineage in Europe which goes back to medieval times (cf. Hieatt and Hosington, 1998); these now enjoy a wide popularity. Elderflowers also go into muffins and pancakes to lighten and flavour them.